As Trevino highlights, the struggle to transformindustrial grain is no small battle. If All Purpose Flour is a symptom of asociopolitical logic determined to concentrate power and quash difference, thenfixing the problem starts with reasserting the distinctive ecological andsocial fabric of diverse communities.
There may be another motivation for some restrictions on cottage food sales: protectionism. In New Jersey and Wisconsin, for example, powerful lawmakers have fought to maintain barriers to cottage food entrepreneurship in order to shield brick-and-mortar bakeries and others from competition.
Bethel Woods Center for the Arts inspires, educates, and empowers individuals through the arts and humanities by presenting a diverse selection of culturally-rich performances, popular artists, and community and educational programming. Located 90 miles from New York City at the site of the 1969 Woodstock festival in Bethel, NY, the lush 800-acre campus includes a Pavilion Stage amphitheater with seating for 15,000, an intimate 440-seat indoor Event Gallery, the award-winning Museum at Bethel Woods: The Story of the Sixties & Woodstock, and a Conservatory for arts education programming. Read more
Flower power was a slogan used during the late 1960s and early 1970s as a symbol of passive resistance and nonviolence. It is rooted in the opposition movement to the Vietnam War. The expression was coined by the American Beat poet Allen Ginsberg in 1965 as a means to transform war protests into peaceful affirmative spectacles. Hippies embraced the symbolism by dressing in clothing with embroidered flowers and vibrant colors, wearing flowers in their hair, and distributing flowers to the public, becoming known as flower children. The term later became generalized as a modern reference to the hippie movement and so-called counterculture of drugs, psychedelic music, psychedelic art and social permissiveness.
The term "Flower Power" originated in Berkeley, California, as a symbolic action of protest against the Vietnam War. In a November 1965 essay titled How to Make a March/Spectacle, Beat poet Allen Ginsberg advocated that protesters should be provided with "masses of flowers" to hand out to policemen, press, politicians and spectators. The use of props like flowers, toys, flags, candy and music were meant to turn anti-war rallies into a form of street theater thereby reducing the fear, anger and threat that is inherent within protests. In particular, Ginsberg wanted to counter the "specter" of the Hells Angels motorcycle gang who supported the war, equated war protesters with communists and had threatened to violently disrupt planned anti-war demonstrations at the University of California, Berkeley. Using Ginsberg's methods, the protest received positive attention and the use of "flower power" became an integral symbol in the counterculture movement.
The avant-garde art of Milton Glaser, Heinz Edelmann, and Peter Max became synonymous with the flower power generation. Edelman's illustration style was best known in his art designs for the Beatles' 1968 animated film Yellow Submarine. Glaser, the founder of Push Pin Studios, also developed the loose psychedelic graphic design, seen for example in his seminal 1966 poster illustration of Bob Dylan with paisley hair. It was the posters by pop artist Peter Max, with their vivid fluid designs painted in Day-Glo colors, which became visual icons of flower power. Max's cover story in Life magazine (September 1969) as well as appearances on The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson and The Ed Sullivan Show, further established "flower power" style art into mainstream culture.
Traditionally, the most prevalent flours are milled from wheat. Refined wheat flours are, by law, enriched with thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and iron, and fortified with folic acid. Whole-wheat flours naturally contain B vitamins and iron, in addition to selenium, potassium and magnesium. They also are good sources of fiber; however, whole-wheat flours may not be enriched with folic acid.
Gluten-free bread mixes often are blends of flours from other grains or plant sources. For example, one gluten-free baking mix contains garbanzo bean flour, potato starch, tapioca flour, white sorghum flour and fava bean flour. And on their own, non-wheat flours also offer a variety of uses and qualities.
In kitchens around the world, there are many other flours for baking, thickening, bulking and binding the ingredients of ethnic dishes. These are typically ground from locally available foods, which, as staples, are important sources of calories, protein and other nutrients. Many are sold in ethnic food stores in the U.S. and deliver unique flavors and cooking qualities.
In a large bowl, thoroughly mix together the bread flour, whole wheat flour, water, starter, and salt by hand until there are no patches of dry flour. You can squeeze the dough through your hands, like extruding pasta between your fingers! The dough will be sticky, gluey, and shaggy.
Lightly dust your table with flour. Using a dough scraper, gather the dough together in the bowl and, with a quick motion, scoop the dough up with the dough scraper and flip it onto the table. Pat into a rectangle with a short side facing you. Bring the edge of the dough closest to you to the top (the edge farthest from you), leaving a 1-inch lip. Take the sides of the dough, gently stretch each outward a few inches, then quickly cross them over each other so they are on top of each other, like swaddling a baby. Next, stretch the edge of the dough closest to you up to the top, flush with the top edge. Gently press to create a seam.Advertisement
The new program will focus on the emerging local organic grain industry, with the participants working everywhere from farm to kitchen. They will learn from farmers, bakers, culinary experts and business owners to grow, harvest, mill local grains, and sell organic flour, guided through entrepreneurship projects across the value chain that support and strengthen the operations for local small grains.
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